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Termites are found on all continents except Antarctica. The diversity of termite species is low in North America and Europe (10 species known in Europe and 50 in North America), but is high in South America, where over 400 species are known.34 Of the 3,000 termite species currently categorized, 1,000 are found in Africa, where mounds are extremely abundant in certain regions.
Within China, termite species are limited to moderate tropical and subtropical habitats south of the Yangtze River.34 In Australia, all environmental groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 categorized species.34.
Due to their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cold or cool habitats.36 There are three ecological groups of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous woods, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites live in widely diverse regions.34 One species in the drywood category is the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which can be an invasive species in Australia.37.
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Termites are usually modest, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (0.16 to 0.59 in) in length.34 The largest of extant termites would be the queens of the species Macrotermes bellicosus, measuring up to over 10 centimetres (4 in) in length.38 Another giant termite, the extinct Gyatermes styriensis, thrived in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3.0 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (0.98 in).39note 1. )
Most worker and soldier termites are completely blind because they do not own a pair of eyes. However, some species, such as Hodotermes mossambicus, have compound eyes that they utilize for orientation and to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.40 The alates (winged males and females) have eyes along with lateral ocelli.
Termite antennae have a number of functions like the sensing of touch, taste, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three basic segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (usually shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel). The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a set of mandibles.
Consistent with all insects, the anatomy of this termite thorax consists of 3 segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax. Each segment contains a pair of legs. On alates, the wings are located at the mesothorax and metathorax. Even the mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates. .
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Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen using 2 plates, the tergites and also the sternites. The tenth abdominal segment has a pair of short cerci.45 You can find ten tergites, of which nine are wide and one is elongated. The reproductive organs are similar to people in cockroaches but are somewhat more simplified. For example, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the sperm is either immotile or aflagellate.
Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females have an ovipositor, a characteristic strikingly like this in female cockroaches.48.
The non-reproductive castes of termites are wingless and rely solely on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only for a short amount of time, and therefore they also rely on their legs. The appearance of the legs is comparable in each and every caste, but the soldiers have bigger and thicker legs.
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The number of their website tibial spurs on an individual's leg fluctuates. Some species of termite have an arolium, found between the claws, which can be present in species which climb on smooth surfaces but is absent in many termites.49.
Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equal length.2 the majority of the time, the alates are poor flyers; their technique is to launch themselves in the air and fly in a random direction. Studies indicate that in comparison to bigger termites, smaller termites cannot fly long distances. When a termite is in flight, its wings remain at a ideal angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to the body.51.
Caste method of termites A King B Queen C Secondary queen D Tertiary queen Soccer Soldiers F Worker
Worker termites undertake the maximum labor within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.53 Workers are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in food and are thus the most likely caste to be found in infested wood. The process of worker termites feeding other nestmates is known as trophallaxis.
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Some termite species do not own a legitimate worker caste, instead relying on nymphs that do the same work without differentiating as a separate caste.53.